Implementation of E-learning in Croatian High Education Institutions: Content Analysis of Academic Papers from 2007 to 2019



The aim of this paper is to present the experiences of e-learning in higher education in Croatia through the content analysis of scientific and professional articles published in Croatian scientific journals, and through the analysis of doctoral dissertations available online in full in the period 2007-2019.


E-learning can be described “as the use of new multimedia technologies and the Internet to improve learning through facilitated access to resources and services and through exchange and cooperation. ”(European Training Foundation). Croatian higher education institutions have been familiar with e-learning since the 1990s, but its systematic implementation started at the University of Zagreb with the Bologna reform in 2007.

E-learning brings many benefits and new challenges to teachers and students, both technologically and psychologically. To be successful, it needs a high degree of motivation and acceptance.


The aim of this poster is to present the experiences of e-learning in higher education in Croatia through content analysis of scientific and professional papers and doctoral dissertations on the subject available online.


We analysed 25 articles available online through HRČAK (Portal of Croatian Scientific Journals) and five doctoral dissertations issued by Croatian universities between 2007 and 2019 and obtained through search using the following keywords: e-learning, distance learning, hybrid learning, digital learning, higher education, and their versions in Croatian language.


15 articles were written in Croatian, five in English, and five in both languages. Seven were professional and 18 scientific articles, one of which research and nine original scientific papers. They covered different fields of science such as information science, pedagogy, psychology, medicine, and technical sciences. Of the five doctoral dissertations four were in Croatian and one in English.

Our analysis shows that e-learning in Croatia has been well received from the very beginning. Teachers generally look forward to its further development, while the motivation of students still depends on study subject and gender to some extent. Since the COVID-19 pandemic started, e-learning has become the prevailing way of transmitting knowledge.


In a few years it would be necessary to repeat this analysis on a much larger sample. It would be particularly interesting to follow the inclusion of free, open sources for e-learning and promotion of open science.

Key words

e-learning, open science, higher education, teacher attitudes, student attitudes