Though a small country, The Netherlands produces nearly 3 percent of the world’s total scholarly and scientific publications. In the spring of 2007 all Dutch academic and research universities signed the Berlin Declaration on Open Access, in the autumn of 2009 followed by the Dutch professional and vocational universities. The relevance of Open Access has now come to a potential turning point. Supported by Dutch politics and the government, the Dutch universities are putting strong pressure on publishers to adapt their traditional business models so they will support Open Access while charging the universities no additional license fees. The current negotiations between universities and publishers have a strong focus on the gold route, with instant publication without any embargo period, and free access for everyone. However, the average academic researcher may not necessarily consider the transition from Toll Access to Open Access his principal or most urgent concern. There are wide differences among disciplines, while the journal’s impact factor still is an important factor when deciding where to publish. This presentation gives a brief overview of the current developments, keys to success and blocking factors in the area of Open Access in the Netherlands.